While research and development remains crucial for manufacturing, India’s manufacturing sector is dominated by low-medium R&D industries.
India’s R&D intensity—measured as expenditure on R&D as % of GDP—is less than 1% as compared to advanced nations’ 3%.
As a result, the share of business in R&D expenses is low in India; around 63% of R&D originates from the government sector.
India also has one of the lowest R&D personnel per thousand labour force.
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